奥密克戎更温和? 美国死亡病例居高不下
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2022年02月16日

(华盛顿16日讯)为什么面对更温和的奥密克戎变种,美国的冠病死亡数字仍在节节攀升?美国的冠病病死率为何又远远超过其他西方发达国家?

在美国东海岸地区,奥密克戎变种病毒的疫情高峰显然已经过去,每日新增感染病例数已经重新跌至了去年冬天的水平之下。多个州宣布取消室内公共场所必须佩戴口罩的规定。在美国南部、西部地区,尽管新增病例数依然处于相当高的水平,但也不再呈现爆炸性增长趋势。

然而,令人忧心的是,冠病病毒致死病例数却高得令人乍舌,全国每天有大约2500人死于冠病或死亡时携带冠病病毒。两年来,美国累计冠病死亡病例数已经达到了92万。按照当前速度,再过一个多月,美国冠病死亡病例数就会突破100万大关。

许多人都认为,奥密克戎变种相对更温和,因此死亡病例数并不会随着感染数激增而暴涨。然而,事实却是,死于奥密克戎变种的人数已经高于德尔塔变种。即便和去年冬天尚未大规模铺开疫苗接种时相比,现在的每日新增死亡病例数也只低了1/3。按照人口比例计算,美国的冠病累计死亡总数在西方发达国家中位居榜首:每100万居民中有将近3000人。作为对比:比利时和英国的该指数为近2500,法国大约为2000,瑞典、德国则为1500左右。长期贯彻严格防疫措施的澳洲则只有不到200。

从增长曲线来看,美国大约一半的冠病死亡病例都发生在特朗普下台以后,因此死亡率位居西方国家第一名并不能单纯地怪罪前总统特朗普防疫失当。

目前,美国的疫苗接种率、加强针接种率都相对偏低。全国只有64%的人口完成了冠病疫苗接种,接种了加强针的人口比例更是只有27%。作为对比,德国已经有75%的人口完成接种,55%接种了加强针。在高危的65岁以上美国人中,也依然有11%的人没有完成疫苗接种,42%的人尚未接种加强针。和其他发达国家类似,这些人并非是因为无法获取疫苗而没有接种,而是因为对疫苗持拒绝态度。

此外,还有一项美国特色的国情也发挥了很大的作用:该国超高的肥胖率、糖尿病患病率。在住院接受治疗的冠病患者中,有很大一部分都有肥胖或糖尿病问题。美国全国大约有3700万糖尿病患者,约占总人口的十分之一,位居西方发达国家榜首。

统计数据发现,越是低收入人群,对疫苗就越是持拒绝态度;而且,低收入人群的饮食方式也相对更不健康。患有高血压、糖尿病、肥胖等基础疾病的冠病住院病人,其死亡率远远高于其他病人。

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